Ecosystems provide valuable goods and environmental services for our social and economic wellbeing but these are hardly recognised. While forests are managed for timber and fuel wood, the protected areas are primarily managed for game specie. The term ‘biodiversity’ is yet to be recognised in its holistic meanings, including agrobiodiversity. The heavy reliance of mountain and rural communities on natural resources, and depleting resource base due to overexploitation and climate induced disasters, results in high level of vulnerability for communities to food and livelihood insecurity. The challenges of climate change, disasters and food insecurity have to be rooted in conservation of biodiversity. Realising the need to promote ecosystem based adaptation, this study is an attempt to understand the policy, legal, institutional and stakeholders’ capacity for conservation and sustainable management of natural resources in particular context of agriculture and climate change at all tiers of action.