The NMECA report is divided into five sections with a background on the history of protected area management and international commitments of the Philippines to biodiversity conservation presented in the first section. The second section introduces the methodology used and processes undertaken by the study. This is followed by the results of the enhanced METT painting the state of management effectiveness of 61 protected areas in the Philippines. These are followed by three sections that apply different kinds of lenses such as the (i) NIPAS Law and IRR; (ii) changes in forest diversity and marine and coastal resources; and (iii) DENR Major Final Outputs and Rationalization Plan in giving more breadth to the contextual appreciation of state of management of protected areas. Lastly, overall findings, lessons learned, best practices, and key recommendations within and outside DENR’s mandate are offered by the NMECA study. List of references and annexes supporting the findings of the study is provided at the end of the report.